Imprimis May 2013 Volume 42, Number 5
United States Senator
The Miracle of Freedom
In 2012, Ted Cruz was elected as the 34th U.S. Senator from Texas.
Prior to that, he served for five years as Solicitor General of Texas
and was for five years a partner at one of the nation’s largest law
firms. He has authored more than 80 U.S. Supreme Court briefs and argued
43 oral arguments, including nine before the U.S. Supreme Court. He has
also served as Director of the Office of Policy Planning at the Federal
Trade Commission and as Associate Deputy Attorney General at the U.S.
Department of Justice. Senator Cruz graduated with honors from Princeton
University and with high honors from Harvard Law School, and served as a
law clerk to Chief Justice of the Supreme Court William Rehnquist.
The following is adapted from a speech delivered at Hillsdale
College’s 161st Commencement, held in the College’s Biermann Athletic
Center on May 11, 2013.
Today is a day of celebration. For you graduates, it’s a day to
celebrate your hard work, your commitment, time, energy, passion, and
prayers that you have put in to graduate from Hillsdale College. It’s
also a day to celebrate the sacrifice and dedication your family has put
in to get you here. I am honored to join you today—but let me say I
fully recognize that the most forgettable part of this important day is
going to be the politician delivering your commencement speech.
This morning I had the opportunity to tour your wonderful campus, and
one of the highlights for me was the statue of Margaret Thatcher. I
understand that when the statue was unveiled, she sent a letter of
praise that read: “Hillsdale College symbolizes everything that is good
and true in America. You uphold the principles and cherish the values
which have made your country a beacon of hope.” I couldn’t agree more.
There are commencements being held on campuses all over the country
this spring, but this one is different. Hillsdale, it is known across
the country, is in a class by itself. Those graduating from other
colleges are being told to go out and make something of themselves. But
for the men and women receiving their degrees here today, expectations
are higher. Because of the education you received here, you are uniquely
prepared to provide desperately needed, principled leadership to your
families, your churches, your communities, your country, and your fellow
man. While other graduates have been exposed to college courses such as
“Lady Gaga and the Sociology of Fame,” you have been grounded in an
understanding of our Constitution and of the freedom it was designed to
* * *
Last month the world lost Baroness Thatcher, and in her honor I’d
like to spend a few minutes discussing with you the miracle of freedom.
In the history of mankind, freedom has been the exception. Governed
by kings and queens, human beings were told that power starts at the top
and flows down; that their rights emanate from a monarch and may be
taken away at the monarch’s whim. The British began a revolution against
this way of thinking in a meadow called Runnymede in 1215. It was
embodied in the Magna Carta, which read: “To all free men of our kingdom
we have also granted, for us and our heirs for ever, all the liberties
written out below, to have and to keep for them and their heirs . . . .”
That revolution reached full flower in Philadelphia in 1787, in a
Constitution that began from two radical premises.
The first is that our rights come not from kings or queens—or even
from presidents—but from God. As the Declaration of Independence put it,
“We hold these truths to be self evident, that all men are created
equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable
rights, and that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of
Second, in the Constitution, America’s Founders inverted the
understanding of sovereignty. Power comes not from the top down, but up,
from “We the People,” and governing authority for those in political
office is limited to set periods subject to elections. As James Madison
explained in Federalist 51: “If men were angels, no government
would be necessary . . . . In framing a government which is to be
administered by men over men, the great difficulty lies in this: you
must first enable the government to control the governed; and in the
next place oblige it to control itself.”
Even from my short time in elected office, I can assure you there are
no angels in Washington, D.C. And that is why Thomas Jefferson said the
“chains of the Constitution” should bind the mischief of government.
Only when government is limited are rights protected, the rule of law
honored, and freedom allowed to flourish.
You who are graduating from Hillsdale are familiar with these ideas.
As the late conservative writer and educator Russell Kirk observed,
“Hillsdale does not subscribe to the notion that all books published
before 1900 are obsolete. Against all odds, the College speaks up—as it
did during the nineteenth century—for ‘permanent things.’ ” And with
those as our foundation, what has freedom wrought?
* * *
Simply put, the American free market system is the greatest engine
for prosperity and opportunity that the world has ever seen. Freedom
works. No other nation on Earth has allowed so many millions to come
with nothing and achieve so much. In the centuries before the American
Revolution, the average human lived on between one and three dollars a
day, no matter whether one lived in Europe, Asia, Africa, or North or
South America. But from that point on—from the beginning of the American
experiment—for the first time in human history, per capita income in a
few countries began to grow rapidly, and nowhere more so than in the
Over the last two centuries, U.S. growth rates have far outpaced
growth rates throughout the world, producing per capita incomes about
six times greater than the world average and 50 percent higher than
those in Europe. Put another way, the United States holds 4.5 percent of
the world’s population, and produces a staggering 22 percent of the
world’s output—a fraction that has remained stable for two decades,
despite growing competition from around the world.
This predominance isn’t new. The late British economist Angus
Maddison observed that American per capita income was already the
highest in the world in the 1830s. This is a result of America’s
economic freedom, which enables entrepreneurs and small businesses to
Today the U.S. dollar is the international reserve currency. English
is the world’s standard language for commerce. The strength of our
economy allows us to maintain the mightiest military in the world. And
U.S. culture—film, TV, the Internet—is preeminent in the world (although
for many of our TV shows and movies, perhaps we owe the world an
apology). A disproportionate number of the world’s great inventions in
medicine, pharmaceuticals, electronics, the Internet, and other
technology come from America, improving, expanding, and saving lives.
America was where the telephone, the automobile, the airplane, and the
iPhone were invented. Americans were the first to walk on the moon.
But most importantly, freedom produces opportunity. And I would
encourage each of you to embrace what I call opportunity conservatism,
which means that we should look at and judge every proposed domestic
policy with a laser focus on how it impacts the least among us—how it
helps the most vulnerable Americans climb the economic ladder.
The political left in our country seeks to reach down the hand of
government and move people up the economic ladder. This attempt is
almost always driven by noble intentions. And yet it never, ever works.
Conservatives, in contrast, understand from experience that the only way
to help people climb the economic ladder is to provide them the
opportunity to pull themselves up one rung at a time.
As President Reagan said, “How can we love our country and not love
our countrymen, and loving them, reach out a hand when they fall, heal
them when they’re sick, and provide opportunity to make them
self-sufficient so they will be equal in fact and not just in theory?”
Historically, our nation has enjoyed remarkable economic mobility.
About 60 percent of the households that were in the lowest income
quintile in 1999 were in a higher quintile ten years later. During the
same decade, almost 40 percent of the richest households fell to a lower
quintile. This is a nation where you can rise or fall. It is a nation
where you can climb the economic ladder based not on who you are born
to, or what class you are born into, but based on your talents, your
passion, your perseverance, and the content of your character.
Economic freedom and the prosperity it generates reduce poverty like
nothing else. Studies consistently confirm that countries with higher
levels of economic freedom have poverty levels as much as 75 percent
lower than countries that are less free.
Thanks to America’s free market system, the average poor American has
more living space than the typical non‑poor person in Sweden, France,
or the United Kingdom. In 1970, the year I was born, only 36 percent of
the U.S. population enjoyed air conditioning. Today, 80 percent of poor
households in America have air conditioning; and 96 percent of poor
parents say that their children were never hungry at any time in the
preceding year because they could not afford food.
Now, of course, there is still need in America and throughout the
world, and all of us should act to help our fellow man. But more and
more government is not the way to do this. To insist otherwise is to
ignore the fact that all major European nations have higher levels of
public spending than the United States, and that all of them are poorer.
Nor are human beings happiest when they’re taken care of by the
state. Indeed, areas under the yoke of dependency on government are
among the least joyous parts of our society. The story of Julia that we
saw depicted in last year’s election—the story of cradle-to-grave
dependency on government—is not an attractive utopia. Men and women
flourish, instead, when afforded the equal opportunity to work and
create and accomplish.
I remember some time ago when former Texas Senator Phil Gramm was
participating in a Senate hearing on socialized medicine, and the
witness there explained that government would best take care of people.
Senator Gramm gently demurred and said, “I care more about my family
than anyone else does.” And this wide-eyed witness said, “Oh no,
Senator. I care as much about your children.” Senator Gramm smiled and
said, “Really? What are their names?”
* * *
It is precisely because economic freedom and opportunity outperform
centralized planning and regulation that so many millions have risked
everything for a chance at the American dream.
Fifty-five years ago, my father fled Cuba, where he had been
imprisoned and tortured—including having his teeth kicked out—as a
teenager. Today my father is a pastor in Dallas. When he landed in
Austin, Texas, in 1957, he was 18. He couldn’t speak a word of English.
He had $100 sewn into his underwear. He went and got a job washing
dishes and made 50 cents an hour. He worked seven days a week and paid
his way through the University of Texas, and then he got a job, and then
he went on to start a small business.
Now imagine if, at that time, the minimum wage had been two dollars
an hour. He might never have had the opportunity to get that dishwashing
job and work his way through school and work his way up from there. I
cannot tell you how many times I’ve thanked God that some well-meaning
liberal didn’t greet him when he landed in Austin and put his arm around
him and say: “Let me take care of you. Let me make you dependent on
government. Let me sap your self-respect—and by the way, don’t bother
When I was a kid, my father used to say to me: “When we faced
oppression in Cuba, I had a place to flee to. If we lose our freedom
here, where do we go?” For my entire life, my dad has been my hero. But
what I find most incredible about his story is how commonplace it is.
Every one of us here today has a story like that. We could line up at
this podium and each of us tell the story of our parents or grandparents
or our great, great, great grandparents. We are all children of those
who risked everything for liberty. That’s the DNA of what it means to be
an American—to value freedom and opportunity above all.
In 1976, Margaret Thatcher delivered her “Britain Awake” speech. In
it, she said: “There are moments in our history when we have to make a
fundamental choice. This is one such moment, a moment when our choice
will determine the life or death of our kind of society and the future
of our children. Let’s ensure that our children will have cause to
rejoice that we did not forsake their freedom.”
If we don’t fight to preserve our liberty, we will lose it. The men
and women graduating here today, blessed with a world-class liberal arts
education and a Hillsdale love of learning, are perfectly situated to
lead the fight, to tell and retell the story of the miracle of freedom
to so many Americans—so many young Americans in particular—who’ve never
heard that story from the media, or in their schools, and certainly not
Mrs. Thatcher continued: “Of course, this places a burden on us, but
it is one that we must be willing to bear if we want our freedom to
Throughout history, we have carried the torch for freedom. At
Hillsdale, you have been prepared to continue to do so, that together we
may ensure that America remains a shining city on a hill, a beacon to
the world of hope and freedom and opportunity.
Thank you and God bless you.
Reprinted by permission from Imprimis, a publication of Hillsdale College.